Thursday, November 24, 2022

What Does Amazon S3 Stand For

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Will Cloudflare R2 Win Customers From Amazon S3

Introduction to AWS – What is S3?

Cloudflare just announced Cloudflare R2, a cloud object storage service with some incredible features. Keep in mind, it is currently in early access so we donât know everything yet.

Cloudflare R2 promises to solve three main problems that make incumbent providers like Amazon S3 more complicated:

  • Free Egress/Bandwidth
  • Simple integration with Cloudflare Workers
  • It also offers a supposedly easy migration from S3-compatible storage buckets, and automatic replication of âblobsâ across the world. It has quickly become a competitor to other cloud object storage vendors.

    In this post, Iâm going to cover the following:

  • What âR2â means
  • Who could benefit from switching
  • What would stop ideal customers from adopting Cloudflare R2
  • Who is better served by other providers
  • What we still donât know about Cloudflare R2
  • Negative Hacker News comments
  • Protecting Your S3 Data

    User data is stored on redundant servers in multiple data centers. S3 uses a simple web-based interface — the Amazon S3 console â and encryption for user authentication.

    S3 buckets are kept private from public access by default, but an administrator can choose to make them publicly accessible. A user can also encrypt data prior to storage. Rights may be specified for individual users, who will then need approved AWS credentials to download or access a file in S3.

    When a user stores data in S3, Amazon tracks the usage for billing purposes, but it does not otherwise access the data unless required to do so by law.

    Integrating Aws S3 With Sumo Logic

    Monitoring and logging is an important part of ensuring availability, reliability, and performance for customers. By collecting and monitoring data logs from all sources and services within AWS, users gain valuable insight on how application infrastructure is performing, where failpoints are, and where tweaks can be added to improve functionality.

    In the next part of this three part series, weâll be going over AWS S3 monitoring and the importance of logging. Weâll go over how to gather data, leverage that data, understand AWS S3 monitoring metrics, and how AWS S3 is monitored using Sumo Logic.

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    Are The Savings Worth Switching To Cloudflare R2

    Right now, Cloudflare R2 has cheaper and simpler pricing than several incumbent cloud services like Amazon S3 and Azure Blob, but is still well behind others on raw storage cost. When comparing Cloudflare R2 to Backblaze B2, Wasabi or Storj DCS, R2 is about 3 times more expensive for storage.

    However, $0.015 per GB is not necessarily a deal-breaker here. Cloudflare R2 might shine better than other Amazon S3 alternatives when it comes to egress and read/write operations.

    At this point, we will take Cloudflareâs word for it: Egress will be zero cost. But, Backblaze B2 and Wasabi also have a bit of an answer to R2âs âzero egressâ, which we cover in the next section.

    Cloudflare has also given itself wiggle room when it comes to the cost of read/write operations, although itâs implied that whatever it does should be very developer-friendly.

    âR2 will zero-rate infrequent storage operations under a threshold â currently planned to be in the single digit requests per second range. Above this range, R2 will charge significantly less per-operation than the major providers.â – Cloudflare

    Note that Cloudflare in their R2 launch post said âinfrequentâ storage operations, without specifying what those are and the rules that apply.

    *Using Backblaze and/or Wasabi via Cloudflare CDN is limited: You canât serve large amounts of media unless youâre paying more for your usage. The CEO at Cloudflare specified that these restrictions would not apply to Cloudflare R2 .

    What Is An S3 Endpoint

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    An endpoint is the URL of the entry point for an AWS web service. The AWS SDKs and the AWS Command Line Interface automatically use the default endpoint for each service in an AWS Region. But you can specify an alternate endpoint for your API requests.

    Likewise, where is endpoint on s3? How to Find an Amazon S3 Bucket Endpoint

  • Go to the Properties tab.
  • Beside this, how do I use AWS s3 endpoint?

    Create a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3

  • Open the Amazon VPC console.
  • Using the Region selector in the navigation bar, set the AWS Region to the same region as the VPC that you want to use.
  • From the navigation pane, choose Endpoints.
  • Choose Create Endpoint.
  • For Service category, verify that AWS services is selected.
  • How do I find the VPC endpoint?

    Open the Amazon VPC console at .

  • In the navigation pane, choose Endpoints and select the interface endpoint.
  • Choose Actions, Manage Subnets.
  • Select or deselect the subnets as required, and choose Modify Subnets.
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    Lets Break It Down With An S3 Bucket Example

    Let us assume we have a developer who works with a bucket, and in it, they put a folder with objects, using its ACL to make it publicly accessible. At some point, they want to store some sensitive information in the same folder, so they need to make it non-public.

    To do so, they use the block public access settings, specifically IgnorePublicACL, and the bucket and everything in it, is no longer public. The official status is Bucket and objects not public.

    Time goes by and our developer leaves the company, and a new developer joins, and takes over their role.

    The new developer wants to create a new public folder in the same bucket for the companys website, so he changes the IgnorePublicACL back to false, and grants public access to the new folder using its ACL. The bucket status has now changed, and is now Objects can be public. This new developer is not aware that their actions have changed the status of other information inside the bucket, as they do not get any alert about the old developers folder with the sensitive information that has now become public again.

    The question is what can we do about it? How can we be sure that we know what objects are public, and which are not?

    Advantages Of Using Amazon S3

    As previously mentioned, Amazon S3 has some unique benefits as an object storage service as compared to traditional file or block storage. Some major advantages of using Amazon S3 include durability, security, and reliability. Per Amazonâs documentation, Amazon S3 provides customers with a 99.999999999% rate of durability.

    How does Amazon achieve this level of durability? AWS S3 redundantly stores your data across multiple devices spanning at least three AZs in an S3 Region.

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    How To Access Objects Within A Aws Bucket

    Access to a bucket is granted in the same way as with any other AWS resources you need an explicit allow and no denies in order to be given access.

    The explicit allow can be given in three ways bucket policy, bucket ACL, and object ACL.

    S3 Bucket policy: This is a resource-based AWS Identity and Access Management policy. You add a bucket policy to a bucket to grant other AWS accounts or IAM users access permissions to the bucket and the objects inside it. Object permissions apply only to the objects that the bucket owner creates.

    S3 Bucket ACL/Object ACL: This is a sub-resource that is attached to every S3 bucket and object. It defines which AWS accounts or groups are granted access. If it defines access as public, that will allow everyone permissions, whereas if it defines access only to an authenticated user group, this means anyone with an AWS account will have permissions. It also defines the type of access these users have, such as read or write access.

    When you create a bucket or an object, Amazon S3 creates a default ACL that grants the resource owner full control over the resource.

    What Is Amazon S3 Versioning

    What Are Amazon S3 Buckets?

    Data Backup and Data Recovery are two processes where companies invest a lot of money to preserve their data against unwanted hazards. While storing your data, you may have concerns where you may feel you want to avoid overwriting of files. In case if you do you may lose that data and it would be difficult for you then to backtrack and recover that data.

    With Amazon S3 you have an option of versioning. That means you can maintain multiple copies of your data in the same bucket. To give you a simple example let us assume you have a file saved in Amazon S3. Now you go ahead and save the same file on Amazon again. You will get the latest copy of the file you stored. But if you have activated the versioning option in S3 then if you click on the object then all the previous versions of the file will be available and you can then backtrack to previous and use it or make whatever necessary changes you feel you need to implement.

    This feature as mentionedabove is very handy when it comes to storing data and preserving all itsversions. So this was about versioning in Amazon S3. Let us go ahead andunderstand another feature that helps us optimize costs for versioning and alsolets us optimize costs in general.

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    What Is S3 Bucket And How To Access It

    S3 bucket misconfigurations account for 16% of all cloud security breaches. While some of this can be chalked up to inexperience or human error, thats not the only problem going on behind the scenes.

    This two-part series will look in-depth at what is an s3 bucket , how AWS handles access rights and permissions, and a new Lightspin Python tool that will provide some visibility and control over securing your public S3 buckets.

    Breaking Down Aws S3 Storage Classes

    Running a business today means dealing with a massive amount of data, and theres a wide spectrum of how often that data is accessed. On one side you have data thats almost constantly being accessed, revised, overwritten and deleted. On the opposite end you have compliance or regulatory data that wont be touched for years at a time.

    To cover this whole spectrum, Amazon S3 offers six different storage classes, each with different durability, availability and performance requirements:

    • S3 Standard
    • S3 Intelligent-Tiering
    • S3 Standard Infrequent Access
    • S3 One Zone Infrequent Access
    • S3 Glacier
    • S3 Glacier Deep Archive

    S3 Standard

    S3 Standard is the default for many users. Its designed for data thats accessed frequently. S3 Standard is the workhorse of Amazon S3. The low latency and high throughput makes it an extremely versatile backbone for many applications.

    S3 Intelligent Tiering

    Intelligent Tiering uses monitoring and automation capabilities to move data between a frequent-access tier and an infrequent-access tier for cost optimization. Intelligent Tiering ensures youre not paying FA prices for data that isnt being accessed. While there is a monthly monitoring and auto-tiering fee, there are no data retrieval fees, so you dont have to worry about unexpected bill spikes if a data access pattern changes.

    S3 Standard Infrequent Access

    S3 One Zone Infrequent Access

    S3 Glacier

    S3 Glacier Deep Archive

    Comparing AWS S3 Classes

    Amazon S3 Data Transfer Costs

    AWS Snowball

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    S3 Ec2 And Other First Generation Services

    This section is missing information about SimpleDB, MechanicalTurk, Elastic Block Store, Elastic Beanstalk, Relational Database Service, DynamoDB, CloudWatch, Simple Workflow, CloudFront, Availability Zones. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page.

    On March 14, 2006, cloud storage launched followed by EC2 in August 2006.Andy Jassy, AWS founder and vice president in 2006, said at the time that Amazon S3 “helps free developers from worrying about where they are going to store data, whether it will be safe and secure, if it will be available when they need it, the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they have enough storage available. Amazon S3 enables developers to focus on innovating with data, rather than figuring out how to store it.” Pi Corporation, a startup Paul Maritz co-founded, was the first beta-user of EC2 outside of Amazon, whilst Microsoft was among EC2’s first enterprise customers. Later that year, SmugMug, one of the early AWS adopters, attributed savings of around US$400,000 in storage costs to S3.

    In September 2007, AWS announced annual Start-up Challenge, a contest with prizes worth $100,000 for entrepreneurs and software developers based in the US using AWS services such as S3 and EC2 to build their businesses. The first edition saw participation from, which Amazon would later acquire in 2014.Ooyala, an online media company, was the eventual winner.

    Everything You Need To Know About Aws S3

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    If you have ever worked as a developer, you would have come across file storage use cases. From simple images to large videos, uploading, storing, and accessing those files back when you need them is always tricky to implement.

    The usual answer to file storage is the same server where you host your web application. But with the advent of serverless architectures and single-page applications, storing files on the same server is not a good idea.

    You could argue that you can store files in databases. Trust me, it wont be a pleasant experience.

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    How Amazon S3 Works

    Amazon S3 is an object storage service that stores data as objects within buckets. An object is a file and any metadata that describes the file. A bucket is a container for objects.

    To store your data in Amazon S3, you first create a bucket and specify a bucket name and AWS Region. Then, you upload your data to that bucket as objects in Amazon S3. Each object has a key , which is the unique identifier for the object within the bucket.

    S3 provides features that you can configure to support your specific use case. For example, you can use S3 Versioning to keep multiple versions of an object in the same bucket, which allows you to restore objects that are accidentally deleted or overwritten.

    Buckets and the objects in them are private and can be accessed only if you explicitly grant access permissions. You can use bucket policies, AWS Identity and Access Management policies, access control lists , and S3 Access Points to manage access.


    Amazon S3 Data At Rest Encryption

    There are 2 ways that data can be encrypted at rest on Amazon S3 Server Side Encryption and Client Side Encryption.

    Server Side Encryption

    • AWS Key Management Service Managed Keys SSE-KMS
    • Server Side Encryption with Customer Provided Keys SSE-C

    Client Side Encryption

    • Done locally on your PC or Mac that you use to upload the data to S3

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    The Problem With Awss Evaluation

    As you can see, these four access options dont necessarily allow you to provide definitive answers to whether your objects are public or not, and which buckets are secure. While Public is a black and white outcome, and so is Bucket and objects not public, the other two are open to confusion. In particular, the outcome of Objects can be public leaves your security teams none the wiser about whether items are accessible or not.

    S3 Bucket & Object Operations

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    • Listing
    • S3 allows listing of all the keys within a bucket
    • A single listing request would return a max of 1000 object keys with pagination support using an indicator in the response to indicate if the response was truncated
    • Keys within a bucket can be listed using Prefix and Delimiter.
    • Prefix limits result to only those keys that begin with the specified prefix, and delimiter causes the list to roll up all keys that share a common prefix into a single summary list result.
  • Retrieval
  • An object can be retrieved as a whole
  • An object can be retrieved in parts or partially by using the Range HTTP header.
  • Range HTTP header is helpful
  • if only a partial object is needed for e.g. multiple files were uploaded as a single archive
  • for fault-tolerant downloads where the network connectivity is poor
  • Objects can also be downloaded by sharing Pre-Signed URLs
  • Metadata of the object is returned in the response headers
  • Object Uploads
  • Single Operation Objects of size 5GB can be uploaded in a single PUT operation
  • Multipart upload can be used for objects of size > 5GB and supports the max size of 5TB. It is recommended for objects above size 100MB.
  • Pre-Signed URLs can also be used shared for uploading objects
  • Objects if uploaded successfully can be verified if the request received a successful response. Additionally, returned ETag can be compared to the calculated MD5 value of the upload object
  • Copying Objects
  • When an object is copied
  • Copying Objects can be needed to
  • Renaming of the objects
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    Storage Logging And Monitoring

    Amazon S3 provides logging and monitoring tools that you can use to monitor and control how your Amazon S3 resources are being used. For more information, see Monitoring tools.

    Automated monitoring tools

    • â Track the operational health of your S3 resources and configure billing alerts when estimated charges reach a user-defined threshold.

    • AWS CloudTrail â Record actions taken by a user, a role, or an AWS service in Amazon S3. CloudTrail logs provide you with detailed API tracking for S3 bucket-level and object-level operations.

    Manual monitoring tools

    • Server access logging â Get detailed records for the requests that are made to a bucket. You can use server access logs for many use cases, such as conducting security and access audits, learning about your customer base, and understanding your Amazon S3 bill.

    • AWS Trusted Advisor â Evaluate your account by using AWS best practice checks to identify ways to optimize your AWS infrastructure, improve security and performance, reduce costs, and monitor service quotas. You can then follow the recommendations to optimize your services and resources.

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